By Roman Wolczuk
This publication analyses Ukraine's kin with each one of its neighbours within the Nineties. It examines the measure to which those kinfolk outfitted into Ukraine's extensive goal of reorienting its key political ties from East to West, and asseses the level to which Ukraine succeeded in attaining this reorientation. It exhibits how within the early days of independence Ukraine fought off threats from Russia and Romania to its territorial integrity, and the way it made development in developing stable family members with its western neighbours as a method of relocating nearer in the direction of crucial eu sub-regional and ecu local corporations. It additionally exhibits how the sheer breadth and intensity of its financial and army ties to Russia persevered to exert the sort of robust impact that relatives with Russia dwarfed Ukraine's kinfolk with all different neighbours, leading to a international and defense coverage which tried to counterbalance the competing forces of East and West.
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Extra resources for Ukraine's Foreign and Security Policy 1991-2000 (Basees Curzon Series on Russian and East European Studies)
This in turn led to another series of costs. The most tangible of these was a significant diminution of Ukraine’s portion of the fleet. In addition, despite the fact that the stationing of Russian forces was a temporary phenomenon, it still was a direct contravention of Ukraine’s constitution. In addition, the inclusion of the provision in the joint declaration on the part of both parties to ‘co-operate in ensuring the security of the southern borders of our two countries’ is interpreted by Sherr as showing that ‘in resonance if not in substance .
More pointedly, Ukraine’s relations with Russia were from 1991 complicated by Russian aspirations to Crimea in toto and Sevastopol in particular, along with the Black Sea Fleet based there. In theory these issues were not inextricably connected – they only came to be so through the efforts of Moscow. 5 This decision was effectively validated in the referendum on independence in 1991, when Crimea voted for the independence of Ukraine, albeit by a narrow majority – 54 per cent, the smallest majority in all of the oblasts of Ukraine.
The signing of a treaty would have been very welcome as by that stage Ukraine had discovered that the desire to hang onto its nuclear weapons aroused the wrath of the West, rather than elicited its support. Indeed, not only was the West marginalising Ukraine because of its stance on nuclear weapons, but, according to Smith: the Massandra summit reveals that it has become difficult for Ukraine to break away from Moscow’s orbit. 14 A significant milestone in the resolution of both the nuclear and borders issues was the 1994 Trilateral Agreement signed between Ukraine, Russia and the United States.