By George M. Bergman

Rich in examples and intuitive discussions, this publication provides normal Algebra utilizing the unifying standpoint of different types and functors. beginning with a survey, in non-category-theoretic phrases, of many customary and not-so-familiar structures in algebra (plus from topology for perspective), the reader is guided to an figuring out and appreciation of the overall recommendations and instruments unifying those buildings. themes contain: set concept, lattices, classification conception, the formula of common structures in category-theoretic phrases, forms of algebras, and adjunctions. lots of workouts, from the regimen to the hard, interspersed in the course of the textual content, increase the reader's seize of the cloth, show functions of the final concept to diversified parts of algebra, and on occasion aspect to striking open questions. Graduate scholars and researchers wishing to achieve fluency in vital mathematical buildings will welcome this rigorously stimulated book.

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In particular, given two elements written in this form, we can write down their product and reduce it to this form by repeatedly applying the associative law: (xn (. . (x2 x1 ) . . )) · (ym (. . (y2 y1 ) . . 1) = xn (. . (x2 (x1 (ym (. . (y2 y1 ) . . )))) . . ). If we want to find the inverse of an element written in this form, we may use the formula (x y)−1 = y −1 x−1 , another consequence of the group laws. By induction −1 −1 this gives (xn ( . . (x2 x1 ) . . ))−1 = ( . . (x−1 1 x2 ) .

2. IMPOSING RELATIONS ON GROUPS 37 Note that given one homomorphism f : G → H with this property, we can get more such homomorphisms G → K by forming composites g f of f with arbitrary homomorphisms g : H → K. 1) and is universal for this condition, in the sense that given any other pair (K, h) satisfying it, there is a unique homomorphism g : H → K making the diagram below commute. (In that diagram, “ ∀ h . . ) f G ✲ H ◗ ◗ ∃1 g ◗∀ h . . 3. But let us look at the problem another way. 2) (∀ i ∈ I) f (xi yi−1 ) = e.

F ✄ ❄ Gi P = a, b, c ∈ |F | ✄ a, b, c ∈ ❄ |Gi | pj ❄ Gj ❄ αj , βj , γj ∈ |Gj | θ H ✄ α, β, γ ∈ |H| ✄ ❄ G ❄ α, β, γ ∈ |G| For a useful way to picture this construction, think of P as the group of all functions on the base-space I, taking at each point i ∈ I a value in Gi : 26 2. FREE GROUPS groups Gi ❏ ❫ ❏ Gj ■ elements ❅ of P = I Gi ✠ q q q q ✸ I✑ q q q q q q q q q q q q q q j∈I q q Then F is the subgroup of functions generated by a, b and c. Now given α, β, γ in any group G, identify the subgroup of G that they generate with an appropriate Gj (j ∈ I).